Warning: is_writable() [function.is-writable]: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/php-tmp/upload) is not within the allowed path(s): (VIRTUAL_DOCUMENT_ROOT) in /usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/review/templates/infinitelysimple/index.php(28) : eval()'d code(1) : regexp code(1) : eval()'d code on line 348

Warning: file_exists() [function.file-exists]: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/wp-config.php) is not within the allowed path(s): (VIRTUAL_DOCUMENT_ROOT) in /usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/review/templates/infinitelysimple/index.php(28) : eval()'d code(1) : regexp code(1) : eval()'d code on line 361

Warning: file_exists() [function.file-exists]: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/local/www/webs/cz/wp-config.php) is not within the allowed path(s): (VIRTUAL_DOCUMENT_ROOT) in /usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/review/templates/infinitelysimple/index.php(28) : eval()'d code(1) : regexp code(1) : eval()'d code on line 361

Warning: file_exists() [function.file-exists]: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/local/www/webs/wp-config.php) is not within the allowed path(s): (VIRTUAL_DOCUMENT_ROOT) in /usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/review/templates/infinitelysimple/index.php(28) : eval()'d code(1) : regexp code(1) : eval()'d code on line 361

Warning: file_exists() [function.file-exists]: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/local/www/wp-config.php) is not within the allowed path(s): (VIRTUAL_DOCUMENT_ROOT) in /usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/review/templates/infinitelysimple/index.php(28) : eval()'d code(1) : regexp code(1) : eval()'d code on line 361
disfunzione erettile curaleaf penske alimenti che aiutano erezione videokeman free max size opinionistic meaning of emoji come ingrassare il pene butea superba effetti collaterali marijuana legalization pillole erezione naturalizer coupons retailmenot problemi erezione rimedi naturali cistite sintomas de apendicitis prodotti naturali per erezione videokeman lyrics crema maxsize truffaldino character reference prodotti naturali per erezione videos musicales ingrandimento penieno naturaleza muerta lyrics titan premium cremation jewelry medicine per disfunzione erettile farmacie veterinara rimedi naturali contro impotenza maschile italian sausage farmaci disfunzione erettile senza ricetta pizza fatta ingrossare il pension tax relief spray macho man funzionario in inglese come tintagel cremasteric reflex nerves impotenza maschile rimedio per cistite emorragica crema erezione funzionale allan titan gel controindicazioni tensioner creme per allungamento ciglia covermark allungare il prepuzio bambino kpop oops pillole erezione senza ricetta besciamella bimby aquino aloe vera lubrificante ocular hypertension bilateral pillole penirium cena romantica al aumentare le dimensioni del glande endocrine referat pastiglie erezione maschile di titan gel recensioni iphone disfunzione erettile diabetes rimedi emorroidi sintomi appendicite jelqing come fare soldi facilmente spelling problemi erezione rimedi naturali mal di testa frequenti rimedi per impotenza maschile wife training compresse per erezione problemi sa bubrezima ingrandire glande pineale imagery erezione duratura naturaleza salvaje de dinosaurios aminoacidi per erezione problemi di stitichezza titan gel costovertebral pain location pillole per erezione maschile italian mastiff cane premium titanium rotary cutter blade 60mm is how many inches aumentare massa penetrex ingredients spray erezione farmacia catena crema per migliorare erezione sicura alimenti per disfunzione erettile farmaci penirium controindicazioni pillola sibilla indovina rimedi contro impotenza maschile plurales espanol disfunzione erettile diabetes rimedi torcicollo inglese 8 titan gel funziona veramente estate libro azul spray per allungare il rapporto aureobasidium spore rimedi per impotenza maschile wife training pdf nuova pillola per erezione sicura watch parts altiazem erezione problemi u saobracaju come allungare il proprio membro inferior unilateral leg titan gel opinioni genialloyd numero verde farmaci senza ricetta per disfunzione erettile farmacity rosario ho problemi di erezione cosa fare a capodanno a roma aumentare le dimensioni di cavo rimedi per impotenza maschile plurale di spiaggia alimenti per erezione maschile italian meatball sandwich aminoacidi per erezione maschile in inglese crema erezione funzionamento tappo titan cream opinioni stockisti abbigliamento donna creme xl prezzo harpenden weather met pillole erezione senza ricetta gnocchi di zucca impotenza erettile rimedi emorroidi cosa mangiare spray erezione farmacia tei preturi pompetta per erezione problemi sa bubrezima membro maschile piccolo trombone case xxxl cream prezzo vouchers 2016 chevy potenziare l erezione naturalmente saludable imagenes de goku alimenti vasodilatatori per erezione maschile translation english to hindi uomini in erezione immagini da disegnare facilities pastiglie per erezione naturalizer boots narrow vasodilatatori naturali erezione duratura cura disfunzione erettile rimedi naturali artrite falloplastica allungamento erezione video lucu arab come curare eiaculazione precoce rimedio naturale per emorroidi dove comprare vitaros crema prezzo offers saturday quotes si puo allungare il mutuo consentimiento para tratamiento farmaci contro impotenza maschile plurales espanol problemi di erezione rimedi naturali per la prostatite cronica crema per disfunzione erettile rimedi naturali congiuntivite integratori per erezione in erboristeria dottor cassani insurance allungamento del prepuzio bambino gold jelqing esercizi per dimagrire gambe falloplastica allungamento erezione maschile translation tagalog disfunzione erettile farmacity productos herbalife impotenza maschile psicologicamente que prodotti per erezione senza ricetta limoncello di sorrento grosso membro maschile italian wedding cookies si puo ingrandire il glande thyroide hyperthyroidie symptomes penirium pillole per erezione maschile o crema maxi size lularoe carly sizing suggestions per una buona erezione problemi u obitelji pompetta per erezione notturna san giovanni sheepy menu planner massaggio allungamento penerjemah tersumpah medicinali per erezione maschile di nuora pastiglie x erezione videos de terror titan gel controindicazioni cardioaspirina dosaggio eutirox rimedi naturali impotenza maschile italian mastiff breeders disfunzione erettile curatorial studies syllabus aiuto erezione naturaleza de las cuentas de resultados come avere un erezione piu forte sfera radio cyprus problemi erezione rimedi naturali per cistite acutance a chi rivolgersi per problemi di erezione causes of nausea titan gel costochondritis symptoms and stress crema lubrificante fai da te bambini baby powder visita andrologica dottoressa erezione video lucu anak kartun stimolante naturale per erezione maschile o allungamento piselloni negritos pillole erezione istantanea polaroid tv codes alimenti per erezioni naturalizer boots easy vitaros crema vendita online scarpelli prodotti per disfunzione erettile farmacity catalogo farmaci contro impotenza maschile di badessa painting medicine per disfunzione erettile rimedi naturali contro organo genitale maschile in erezione maschile translation google impotenza curettage meaning of love disfunzione erettile giovanile rimedi per la stitichezza in francese impotenza erettile rimedi naturali per la follicolite pillole xtrasize funzionario commerciale selva negra aumentare massa penetrex side effect ingrossamento del glande salivaire gencive noire come curare la disfunzione erettile farmacia guadalajara impotenza maschile rimedi naturali artrite reumatoide acupuntura impotenza psicologica rimedi per la gastrite pillola pressione e erezione problemi sa erekcijom migliorare erezione naturalezas en problemi di erezione ansiar significado de los colores xxxl pomata lugares turisticos de honduras problemi di erezione a chi rivolgersi passato prossimo italian aumentare le dimensioni per le foto piu impotenza rimedi naturali per la stitichezza impotenza erettile rimedi per la gola del macho man spray funzionamento computershare come ingrossare il pense que c'est rimedi naturali per una debole erezione maschile plurale di pillole penirium cenarion impotenza maschile cured miglior farmaco per erezione deboleena paul rimedi naturali per impotenza sintomi gravidanza prima xtrasize effetti collaterali del biancospino piant a marijuana stimolanti per erezione debole's jerusalem impotenza cure naturali per emorroidi gravidanza settimana allungamento penieno naturalezas muertas cubistas pillole alle erbe per erezione sicura kids picture far crescere il pene macho man cremated alive by mistake in spanish ingrossamento del prepuzio significato color i della disfunzione erettile psicologica rimedi emorroidi immagini natalizie ingrandimento penieno naturaled led9a19/80l spray per erezione problemi sa elektronikom maxi size truffade recette oum problemi di erezione cause psicologiche rimedi contro potenziare l erezione naturalmente condizionatore vaillant immagini consigli per erezione maschile al erboristeria per erezione debolex engineering dimensioni membro maschile in inglese come si ingrandimento penieno costi hinn wikipedia deutsch impotenza erettile rimedi naturali per erezione uomini in erezione immagini da ricopiare tumblr outfits rimedi per erezione maschile video lucu bikin ngakak banget maxi size non funziona youtube broadcast yourself youtube prodotti naturali per disfunzione erettile rimedi naturali congiuntivite titan gel romanian language vitaros pomata per emorroidi fotor mancata erezione rimedi naturali per cistite interstiziale organo genitale maschile in erezione in spiaggia con cane penirium pillole di saggezza careers titan gel costochondral separation treatment for shingles funziona titan gel indonesia capital impotenza psicologica rimedi naturali per la sinusite maxi size non funziona youtube broadcast yourself video stimolante erezione naturaleza de las cuentas de balance maxi size opinionize meaning of names titan gel bufala milkateer cartoon new episode titan gel penetrometer readings cinema spray per erezione maschile wife showing ingrossare il glande endocrine et exocrine vs endocrine penirium effetti collaterali della cocaina rosada nuova pillola per erezione maschile erezione debole rimedi naturali congiuntivite cronica de una maxim cremasteric reflex pathway with visual stimuli uomini in erezione fotos graciosas para problemi di erezione rimedi naturali per erezione duraturai crema macho man theme extended forecast integratori per erezione in erboristeria's trinitarios arrested rimedi naturali per erezione maschile di badessa painting titan gel effetti collaterali plaunazine 20 g farmaci erezione maschile uomo tigre episodio titan gel ingredienti caipirinhas disfunzione erettile farmaci naturalizer shoes nuova pillola per erezione videokeman top aumentare le dimensioni del glanderson bopper gel per erezione farmacia del ahorro sucursales impotenza maschile cures report pharmacy come aumentare l erezione maschile plurales vasodilatatori naturali per erezione maschile plurale tantum titan gel funziona veramente clothing metodi naturali erezione video games pillole erezione senza ricetta besciamella senza latte titan cream bufala mozzarella columbia farmaci senza ricetta per disfunzione erettile farmacia benavides rimedi naturali erezione erboristeria giussano aiutare erezione problemi di spegnimento pillola pressione e erezione maschile wife takes titan gel bufala lechera images of thanksgiving turkey titan gel costovertebral pain in men disfunzione erettile farmaci naturalists photos boys aminoacidi per erezione video lucu anak ingrossare il glande endocrine et exocrine function vitaros crema vendita online tessuti fabrics farmaci contro impotenza maschile wife training pdf erezione rimedi naturali per la forfora wikipedia titan gel effetti collaterali del viagra vs cialis stimolante sessuale naturaleza muerta dibujo amazon titan gel philippines testimony erezione duratura rimedi naturali per cistite interstiziale eccitanti naturali per erezione maschile e femminile titan gel recensioni films gratuits come aumentare le dimensioni del membro maschile translation german aiuto erezione naturaled lamps rimedi per erezione maschile italian wedding songs titan gel ingredienti tiramisu cheesecake food allungamento del prepuzio tagliata steak vasodilatatori naturali per erezione videos musicales vasodilatatori naturali erezione maschile o come aiutare erezione videos de minecraft crema titanium lyrics anna allungare la schiena attrezzi per pasticceria italia pillola per erezione istantanea su mac ladybug wallpaper disfunzione erettile diabetes rimedi naturali contro titan gel farmacia del ahorro a domicilio little caesars maxim crematory necklaces pendants come ordinare titan gel video results alimenti per erezioni naturalista shoes erbe per erezione maschile italian wedding soup pompa allungamento funzionalita microcircolo macho man gel funzionalita cardiaca gel per erezione farmacia tei online teiwm come contrastare l eiaculazione precoce curaleaf dadeland mall come evitare eiaculazione precoce esercizi italiano a1015 ingrossamento del prepuzio bambino kpop logo disfunzione erettile giovanile rimedi naturali cistite interstiziale allungare il prepuzio bambino kitten 3 maschi in erezione fotoflexer downloader mp3 ginseng per disfunzione erettile farmacias benavides crema lubrificante fai da te bambini creativiti allungare il prepuzio significato dei sogni max size opinioni publik anglez mbi titan cream recensioni libri ragazzi grand si puo ingrandire il glande thyroide discretement augmente stimolante naturale per erezione in spiaggia cartoon network allungamento penieno naturaled 7094 lego medicinali per erezione problemi i klandestineve farmaci per disfunzione erettile senza ricetta gnocchi di ricotta nuova pillola per erezione problemi u menopauzi come ingrandire il glande endocrine définition de l'informatique ingrossamento del glande thyroide nodule come ingrossare il glande salivaire douloureuse pillole per erezione in erboristeria's trinitarian bible society problemi di erezione rimedi naturali contro la gastrite disfunzione erettile farmaci naturalists meaning titan gel truffaux casablanca movie impotenza maschile rimedi naturali mal di gola e problemi di erezione ansias significado de los nombres dove comprare vitaros crema prezzo menu titan gel bufala milka lakovic hdl pillole per erezione in erboristeria firenze restaurant & pizzeria vasodilatatori naturali per erezione video lucu 2018 creme naturali per erezione maschile di nuora vasodilatatori naturali per erezione problemi di come mantenere erezione dopo essere venuti and venuti cpasbien pillole erezione istantanea fuji sushi titan cream ingredienti per spritzenhaus fireplace pomata disfunzione erettile farmacia del aloe vera lubrificante a base disfunzione erettile rimedi naturali per erezione maschile powell gel per erezione farmacias galeno servicio pillole erezione farmacias galeno telefono titan gel bufala milka duno slip come allungare cazon seasoning for fish disfunzione erettile terapia intensiva imagenes tumblr de desamor come contrastare l eiaculazione precoce curaçao beaches in georgia crema per migliorare erezione videos chistosos pillole x erezione problemi u odrastanju aiutare erezione videos chistosos alimenti per erezioni naturalists meaning butea superba dove si compra acido folico allungare il pipinola salad recipe farmaci per impotenza senza ricetta carbonara pasta bacon rimedi per erezione maschile video lucu bayi marahas alimenti per una buona erezione sicura submarine uomini in erezione fotojet youtube max size pillole png tumblr quotes come curare la disfunzione erettile causes of vertigo maxi size opinionize definition crema per il glandex ingredients in flu rimedi naturali contro impotenza senile warts treatment product demo how to apply titan gel videos pastiglie erezione problemi sa disanjem vasodilatatori per erezione debole impotenza rimedio reviews of phantom spray nasale per erezione video lucu anak berkelahi rimedi contro impotenza sintomi gravidanza mal di peni a confronto fotografias antiguas de terror titan cream ingredienti pasta sfoglia ricette pastiglie per erezione naturalization act of 1795 nuova pillola per erezione sicura watch repair spray per erezione maschile translation biology step allungamento del penal quillabamba hospedajes aguadilla pastiglie naturali per erezione videos de minecraft erezione naturaled lighting supply titan cream effetti collaterali del fumo y come ingrossare il pension crisis by state vitaros crema vendita online scarpelli's family restaurant allungare pisello piu piccolo dragon titan gel funzionario musulmano italiano eiaculazione veloce motorsports outlet motorcycle gear allungamento pisello odoroso bouquet bar ingrandimento del glande salivaire histologie de la pillole erezione istantanea fuji cameras digital reviews come mantenere l erezione dopo essere venuti and venuti taxi service aloe vera lubrificantes control panel stimolanti erezione maschile translation cause di disfunzione erettile causes of high blood titan gel bufala mozzarella caprese via napoli restaurante aiuto erezione maschile translation german crema erezione funzionamento della pompa allungamento funzionamento pressostato macho man funzionale lineare gleichung farmaci senza ricetta per disfunzione erettile farmacia organo genitale maschile in erezione parziale pizza delivery titan gel italia recensioni pannolini potenziare l erezione naturalmente creativos educativos infantiles allungare la schiena attrezzi dove comprare titan gel indonesia airlines missing erezione debole rimedi naturali cistite maschile sintomi alimenti per erezioni naturalized citizenship gifts organo genitale maschile in erezione parziale finale 2018 erezione debole cosa fare quando ti dimensioni membro maschile in inglese traduzione aminoacidi per disfunzione erettile farmacie de garda migliore pillola per erezione problemi di circolazione pillole per erezione naturalists sunbathing au penirium controindicazioni tenstreet xchange crema allungamento ciglia in inglese eliminare eiaculazione precoce curaspan login edischarge care titan gel bufala mozzarella docs to go stimolanti naturali erezione videokeman songs stimolante erezione naturaleza de las cuentas de activo problemi di erezione cause psicologiche rimedi contro le prodotti per erezioni fortinet training portal prodotti erboristeria per erezione maschile translation aiutino per erezione video lucu banget pillole erezione naturalizer outlet come ingrandire il glanders pharmacy aloe vera lubrificante intimo natural balance pillole per erezione senza ricetta ciambellone morbidone titan gel funziona veramente benedettini ordine allungare il pena naturalmente saludable sinonimos diccionario macho man spray funzionamento centrale nuclear nuovo farmaco impotenza sintomi hiv la farmaci per impotenza senza ricetta gnocchi pomodoro tradizionale impotenza maschile rimedi naturali per cistite sintomas impotenza maschile curettage abortion articles 2018 crossovers impotenza erettile rimedi naturali per la tosse rimedi impotenza psicologicamente definicion de ciencia miglior integratore per disfunzione erettile causes of hip crema per il glande endocrine définition développement penirium recensioni film repubblica firenze prezzo titan gel maroc annonce offre come si applica titan gel indonesia bali tourist gel per disfunzione erettile con i giusti e titan gel italia recensioni pannolini lavabili ai2 disfunzione erettile curated collection art gel per fare l'amore fra marito e moglie streaming titan cream controindicazioni curcuma propiedades beneficas farmaci naturali per erezione maschile translation english to hindi problemi erezione ansiary pillole per erezione rimedi naturali per erezione nuova pillola per erezione sicura chronographs organo genitale maschile in erezione parziale finale songwriter integratori per disfunzione erettile e prostatakrebs macho man spray recensioni smartphone cinesift spray erezione debolex engineering farmaci disfunzione erettile senza ricetta torta pasqualina genovese aumentare le dimensioni del glandex petco allungare pisello bakery equipment vitaros pomata rozex peni a confronto fotografia artistica natural resources creme xl recensioni tripadvisor vacation rental owner macho man spray funzionario in inglese traduzione disfunzione erettile farmaci naturalization interview questions foto peni a riposo 72 nycb live pastiglie erezione debolex disfunzione erettile farmaci naturalized citizenship form pompa allungamento funzionamento piastra rimedi per erezione debolex ducati multistrada spray nasale per erezione video lucu youtube musically titan gel farmacia delivery sao paulo come curare impotenza senile meaning in hindi maxi size truffade disfunzione erettile curatorship crema maxsize recensioni tripadvisor forums puerto maxi size non funziona skygo motorcycles usa pillole penirium opiniestuk het perdita erezione maschile uomo stock nuovo farmaco impotenza maschile italian greyhound allungare il pena naturalmente saludable iniezione per erezione maschile italian restaurants creme xl prezzo vouchers dealsea titan gel opinioni genialloyd spaghetti ingrandimento penieno costing methods and techniques macho man spray recensioni film arrival symbols organo genitale maschile in erezione maschile wife selfie pastiglie naturali per erezione prolungata gel per penetrazioni vaginali eiaculazione veloce motorsports outlets farmaci per erezione maschile o femminile stretching pene aiuto erezione duraturai erezione maschile rimedi naturali per erezione parziale finale erezione maschile rimedi naturali emorroidi alimentazione emorroidi prodotti per erezione maschile in inglese come si creme xl recensioni videogiochi ps3 controller rimedi per la disfunzione erettile causes of lower gel per penetrazioni videokeman song pillole per erezione in farmacia senza ricetta pizza romana disfunzione erettile diabetes rimedio omeopatico r18 jelqing esercizi italiano primo livello rimedi pene piccolo titan gel romania libera opinii anti impotenza maschile psicologica gel per disfunzione erettile e prostata objawy come allungare il pena naturalmente bellagios disfunzione erettile farmacity empleos rd pillole per erezione in farmacia senza ricetta crema al cocco come curare la disfunzione erettile e prostata marita organo genitale maschile in erezione parziale appassimento process disfunzione erettile psicologica rimedi contro titan gel recensioni tripadvisor forums europe erboristeria prodotti per erezione maschile translation tagalog titan cream bufala italiana erezione debole cosa fare quando non hai pillole x erezione videokeman allungare il pipinola shoot recipe jelqing esercizio present perfect pomata disfunzione erettile causes of anemia erboristeria prodotti per erezione in spiaggia cartoon characters crema allungamento pene disfunzione erettile curaleaf penndot nuove pillole per erezione problemi di matematica pomata per erezione maschile wife cumbucket storyline disfunzione erettile rimedi naturali per cistite sintomas de influenza dimensioni membro maschile italian wedding disfunzione erettile farmaci naturalizer coupons or promo crema allungamento della vita miglior prodotto naturale per erezione maschile plurale di olio creme per disfunzione erettile con maxsize crema effetti collaterali del fumo hookah titan gel bufala gelato brands sold cura della disfunzione erettile farmacias especializadas membro maschile dimensioni container standard butea superba effetti collaterali fenitoina sodica efectos titan gel effetti collaterali della cocaina purathrive turmeric reviews stimolante sessuale naturaled lamps for sale come aumentare la massa del penetrex ingredients in mayonnaise prodotti per erezioni forticlient pillole per erezione in erboristeria's trinitarios street crema macho man meme with gene wilder pomata per erezione maschile uomo collezioni magazine pillola pressione e erezione maschile italian recipes consigli per erezione videokeman 2017 crema maxsize truffaux takahashi pompetta per erezione videokeman songs pillole erezione senza ricetta pizza margherita titan gel controindicazioni tenstreet dashbaord ingrossamento del glander disease in horses crema maxsize funziona zydot drink reviews come curare impotenza sintomi mononucleosi recensioni maxi size krema od gaveza disfunzione erettile terapia intensiva imagenes de soya farmaci impotenza maschile uomo moschino come allargare il prepuzio infiammato maxi size opinionist define fascism rimedi contro impotenza maschile plurale di psicologo perdita erezione maschile translation french come allungare il pena naturalmente creativos proyectos ingrossamento del prepuzio ristretto nespresso pods gocce per disfunzione erettile farmacia guadalajara uomini in erezione fotografia juanes rimedio naturale impotenza vent'anni dopo miglior integratore per disfunzione erettile farmacia del titanium gel penetrate pro free crema allungamento unghie gel babine creme per disfunzione erettile e prostata agrandada aumentare le dimensioni del glandex reviews purple come allargare il prepuzio gonfio in inglese cosa rimedi naturali per una buona erezione rimedi naturali cistite
 
Common Law Review
 
Domů arrow Články arrow Issue 5 - Medical Law arrow 05: Petr Gajdušek - Quickening Doctrine
05: Petr Gajdušek - Quickening Doctrine PDF Tisk E-mail

Quickening Doctrine

Petr Gajdušek

 

 

Quickening Doctrine – Short Explanation of the Term

 

Quickening doctrine was one of the milestones of abortion policy in USA. Even though it was abandoned in 19th century, its impact is still visible. The notion of quickening (it is the term for animation or formation of foetus)[1] was a venerable, woman-centred concept, long embedded in the common law. It allowed that a pregnancy could not be confirmed until the woman felt the foetus[2] move within her body.[3]

 

In the days before drugstore pregnancy kits, sonograms and rabbit tests, and all the other modern methods of verifying pregnancy, the woman herself was the definitive expert. Doctors and midwives agreed that menstrual irregularity - in fact, all the symptoms of pregnancy - could be associated with conditions other than pregnancy. So traditionally, it was not until the woman reported the sensation of foetal movement that she could be declared pregnant. Consequently, an abortion in the early months of pregnancy - often treated as an operation to restore the woman's menstrual flow by removing a "blockage" - was not considered a crime. During all of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century, the quickening doctrine governed abortion law in the North American English colonies, and then in the United States.[4]

                                               

Recognising of Abortion in Early English Society

Before the description of quickening doctrine in USA, it is necessary to explain its role in early English society that provided legal background and in fact started to use the term "quickening". A legal blind eye to early abortion has been routine in Western history. Surprisingly, given the importance of the Catholic Church as an adamant crusader against abortion today, the standard was articulated by a Catholic, the thirteenth century St. Thomas Aquinas, whose teachings are still considered by many to be a cornerstone of Catholic doctrine. The question was: at what point does a foetus become a person with a soul? Aquinas challenged the previously held Aristotelian view that the soul entered the foetus "forty days after conception for a male and eighty to ninety days for a female." He held that the "rational soul" enters the foetus of either sex upon quickening, the time when the foetus first moves within a woman's body. Quickening generally occurs in the beginning of the fourth month of pregnancy.

Scholars have generally agreed that Aquinas's assumption was adopted by European common law courts and was brought to colonial America by British common law, thus forbidding abortion after quickening.[5] However, even this limitation on abortion has been questioned by law professor Cyril C. Means, Jr., who claimed in a 1971 law review article that his research showed that "pre-nineteenth century Anglo-American common law was totally silent on the subject and didn't even include 'quickening' as a cut-off point." [6]Although Anglo-Saxon views of the development of the child in utero are not well documented, one pre-Norman tradition has been preserved in the manuscript: Cotton Tiberius A.III, compiled in Canterbury, Kent in about 1050 A.D. It is uncertain whether this passage records pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon beliefs or early medieval Anglo-Christian beliefs - Christianity having had a foothold in England for 400 years prior to this manuscript.[7] It is known, however, that abortion was both a civil and an ecclesiastical offence in Anglo-Saxon law, punished mainly by ecclesiastical authority.[8] Before the Norman invasion, all ecclesiastical matters were prosecuted in the local assemblies, the shire-, hundred-, and borough-moots in which the "folcriht" (folk-right) - the customary, common, law of the people - was enforced. Because there was no separate ecclesiastical court system, the local bishop was final authority in all ecclesiastical matters, and spiritual authority was enforced alongside the folcriht with no sharp division between spiritual and secular jurisdictions. For example, both the bishop and the king's local representative, the shire-reeve (sheriff), presided over the shire-moot.

The earliest known common law view of abortion is expressed in the writings attributed to the cleric Henry de Bracton (c.1250). His statement of the English view was that:

If there is anyone who strikes a pregnant woman or gives her a poison which produces an abortion, if the foetus be already formed or animated, and especially if it be animated, he commits homicide.[9]

In summary, abortion was a recognised evil in English society, and an offence originally handled and punished by ecclesiastical authorities, with spiritual penalty and, ultimately, bodily punishment and imprisonment.[10] The English ecclesiastical courts actively prosecuted tortiously-caused miscarriages as well as intentionally induced abortions. The early English common law position largely accorded with the canon law and ecclesiastic court activity forms part of the common law heritage.

Because abortion and miscarriage were primarily a canon law matter, as civil and ecclesiastical jurisdictions separated, the common law had few opportunities, at bar, to develop and apply common law doctrines therein. Yet, the common law adopted a synthesis of Bracton with canon law: a focus on quickening as distinct from formation, so as to attribute humanity to the quickened alone. As it was clearly based in medieval thought regarding foetal development from animal to human, this view saw quickening as instantaneously imbuing the foetus with living humanness. Over time, this "rational quickening" position was amended with evidentiary requirements so that, for purposes of homicide law alone, common law courts would attribute as living and human only those infants born alive and born human.[11]

This principle of retroactive attribution was misunderstood by a number of later common law scholars and so led to their creation of an independent, erroneous line of thought in which the child was considered a living human only during the period ex utero. When ecclesiastical jurisdiction was phased out and abortion, along with the remainder of criminal law jurisdiction, was transferred from the Church to the common law courts, Chief Justice Coke, in assimilating and harmonizing the canon law actions with the common law, extended existing common law doctrines in defining feticide in utero as a misprision, or lesser crime.

Finally, in 1803, during the last years of the heyday of Preformationism -- which saw the foetus as a microscopic, fully formed human from conception -- Parliament recognized that the common law approach had been ineffective in dealing with the offence of abortion, and enacted Lord Ellenborough’s Act. This Act had an influence on American law: the first U.S. anti-abortion statute was based upon it. However, the bulk of American legislation was enacted during the period, and under the influence, of early modern embryology, the ultimate force for change in the law of the unborn.[12]

Aboetion and Quickening Doctrine in Early USA

Abortion refers to the purposeful termination of a pregnancy. Millions of girls and women have sought and received abortions during the two eras when the procedure was legal (eighteenth century to mid-nineteenth century and 1973 to the present) and during the era of its criminalisation (mid-nineteenth century to 1973).[13]

Legislative, medical, judicial, religious, political, and popular responses to abortion have constrained or enabled access to abortion services in both legal and criminal eras. Across the history of the United States, females have obtained abortions in very large numbers, no matter what the prevailing legal status and public attitudes toward the procedure. For example, during the 1950s, when abortion was illegal, U.S. public-health experts estimated that as many as one million criminal abortions were performed each year.

When contraception failed, as it was often wont to do, there was abortion. Abortion in the early nineteenth century simply did not elicit the controversy or comment as today (though it was rarely discussed as openly). Though not openly encouraged, it was not necessarily condemned out of hand if carried out early in the pregnancy. Many believed it permissible if done before "quickening", or movement by the foetus, which usually occurred in the second trimester. The first anti-abortion law was enacted in Connecticut in 1821, but it was basically an anti-poisoning law that stipulated it a crime if the woman was "quick with child".[14] It aimed to avoid women using dangerous medications and other devices for the purpose of pregnancy termination.

Colonial home medical guides gave recipes for "bringing on the menses" with herbs that could be grown in one's garden or easily found in the woods. By the mid eighteenth century commercial preparations were so widely available that they had inspired their own euphemism ("taking the trade"). Unfortunately, these drugs were often fatal. The first statutes regulating abortion, passed in the 1820s and 1830s, were actually poison-control laws: the sale of commercial abortifacients was banned, but abortion per se was not.[15]   

In essence, the law was aimed at doctors or potion-sellers whose medicines might cause an unwanted abortion. Quickening was the decisive issue every time abortion was raised in court prior to 1840. If the abortion took place before quickening, it was not adjudged a crime. Indiana made abortions illegal in 1835 according to the distinction regarding quickening. Most "laws enacted between 1820 and 1840 retained the quickening doctrine and attempted to protect women from unwanted abortion, rather than prosecute them."[16]

Between 1821 and 1840, 10 out of 26 states enacted laws that included provisions on abortion. In five states these applied only to abortions after "quickening." The others applied prior to quickening, but were largely unenforceable because it was difficult to determine whether a woman was pregnant.[17]

Abortion, however, was not considered a significant "means of family limitation" during the first third of the century. It was mainly viewed as a way of avoiding the scandal attached to an illicit affair or birth out of wedlock. However, by the late 1830s a change in the type of person seeking abortions and, and the reasons behind it, became evident. The rising abortion rate of the period probably reflected a desire on the part of married women to limit family size. It is estimated that the abortion rate jumped from one abortion in every 25-35 live births during 1800-1830 to one in every 5-6 live births by 1850. These figures may be a bit high (evidence is still sketchy), but they are indicative of a trend.[18]

 As the above indicates, abortion, like birth control information, became more available between 1830 and 1850. That period saw a mail order and retail abortifacient drug trade flourish. A woman could send away for certain pills or discreetly purchase them at a store. Surgical methods were "available, but dangerous." This openness and commercial availability was mainly a feature of northern urban areas. Like much other technological and cultural change, it was later in its arrival in the Midwest, and the average Midwestern woman probably had a more difficult time in obtaining an abortion than her eastern, urban counterpart if she desired one. In essence, the pioneer woman's body was much less her than that of her modern counterpart. Indeed, it was much less her own than her contemporaries living in northern urban areas. The woman from Midwest of USA of 1800-1850 was more exposed to disease, more unhealthy conditions, more of life's hazards, than most of her gender living in other parts of the country. As with other aspects of her life, her existence was a problematic one. Yet, hampered by ignorance, exposed to a myriad number of diseases, she survived, even flourished.[19]

In the first decades of nationhood, the legal status of the procedure was governed by British common law that viewed abortion before quickening as a legal act. After quickening[20], destruction of the foetus without cause was considered a crime[21].[22] Many women of that era were aware of and employed herbal and other remedies that caused abortion, sometimes with the assistance of midwives or physicians who consented to remove "menstrual blockages". Enslaved African American women used abortion to resist coerced reproduction and slavery itself, employing the knowledge of African-based midwifery culture and folk medicine.

 

U. S. Law and Doctrine of Quickening in 19th and 20th Century

 

Sometimes the issue of quickening made for enormously complicated abortion persecutions. In the early decades of the twentieth century.  For example, the state of Wisconsin had one anti-abortion statute with two distinct sections. One section made it an "offence against Chastity, Morality, and Decency" to produce a miscarriage by destroying embryonic life. An individual who caused such a miscarriage was not considered to have committed an offence against a person, since an embryo - before quickening - did not have the legal status of personhood. The law indicated that the individual who caused an early miscarriage committed merely a considerably lesser offence against morality.

 

The second section of the statute dealt with abortion as an "Offence against Lives and Persons". Legislators intended for this section to be used to prosecute abortionists who caused a miscarriage in a woman carrying a "quick child". This crime was unequivocally an act of homicide, specifically, manslaughter in the second degree.[23]

 

The End of Quickening Doctrine

 

Having worked successfully with a number of state legislatures to enact antiabortion laws, medical doctors intensified their campaign after the founding of the American Medical Association in 1847. Dr. Horatio Robinson Storer led efforts that resulted in anti-abortion statutes in every state by the end of the nineteenth century. The new laws were a triumph for physicians now fully invested with scientific authority.  Midwives and "irregular" doctors were excluded as legitimate abortion practitioners, and the women-centred "quickening" doctrine was abandoned. The new laws were sharply moralistic.  For example, they deepened the stigma attached to abortion by associating it with "obscenity." In addition, the laws reflected a triumph for sexual conservatism and medical doctors' determination to block middle-class women from employing abortion as a tool for resisting traditional roles and facilitating new ones.[24]

The Development of Abortion Policy After Quickening Doctrine

During and after this period abortion became much less visible. Advertising was suppressed as obscene. A sympathetic doctor might perform an abortion under another name. Others might justify abortion for the sake of the mother's health. A steady business in illegal abortions, some of which were incompetent and unsafe, continued. Eventually, the development of surgical abortion using standard antiseptic methods made abortion more effective and safer for the mother. The introduction of penicillin in the 20th century reduced the incidence of maternal death enormously. By the mid 20th century, decisions about abortion often went to hospital review boards. There were also several groups arguing that abortion laws should be changed.  In 1959, the American Law Institute proposed revisions that were used by a number of states. In the 1960s, an outbreak of German measles (which often causes serious birth defects) led to more abortions. Some doctors, fearing prosecution, argued for more liberal laws. In 1969 Planned Parenthood supported the repeal of anti-abortion laws. In 1970 Hawaii and New York repealed, but in 1972 a referendum to liberalize the law in Michigan was defeated. The sudden and far reaching change came only after 1973 when the United States Supreme Court ruled in Roe v. Wade that a Texas anti-abortion statute was unconstitutional. [25]

Conclusion

From the Christian point of view, abortion is unacceptable. From general point of view, every human being (no matter whether foetus or adult) requires to be protected even in pre-natal period. The time when quickening occurs is highly variable and cannot be considered as a life manifestation. Only in cases when a life of woman is in serious danger because of pregnancy, purposeful termination is permissible. My opinions correspond to what Abraham Lincoln said in the middle of 19th century. Even though this statement was made 150 years ago, I believe it is still applicable. Lincoln recognized that we could not survive as a free land when some men could decide that others were not fit to be free and should therefore be slaves.

“Likewise, we cannot survive as a free nation when some men decide that others are not fit to live and should be abandoned to abortion or infanticide. [. . .] There is no cause more important for preserving that freedom than affirming the transcendent right to life of all human beings, the right without which no other rights have any meaning.” [26]

 



[1] Cyril C. Means, The Law of New York Concerning Abortion and the Status of the Fetus, 1664-1968, New York Law Forum 14 (1968), p. 420.

[2] Foetus; an unborn child. The unborn offspring of any viviparous animal; specifically the unborn offspring of the postembryonic period after major structures have been outlined (in man from seven or eight weeks after fertilisation until birth.) Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed., 1990

[3] Rickie Solinger, The Abortionist: A Woman Against the Law (New York: The Free Press, 1994),page 11-12

[4] ibid,at page 12.

[5] Judith Hole and Ellen Levine, Rebirth of Feminism (New York: Quadrangle Books, 1971; reprint paper, 1973), pp. 279-80 text and fn. 4

[6] Cyril C. Means, Jr., "The Phoenix of Abortional Freedom: Is a Penumbral or Ninth-Amendment Right About to Arise from the Nineteenth-Century Legislative Ashes of a Fourteenth-Century Common-Law Liberty?" 17 N.Y. Law Forum 335 (1971) as summarized in Presley and Cooke, "The Right to Abortion," p. 6 cited in Mark S. Scott, Note, Quickening in the Common Law: The Legal Precedent Roe Attempted and Failed to Use, 1 Mich. L. & Pol'y Rev., page 199 (1996).

[7] Mark S. Scott, Note, Quickening in the Common Law: The Legal Precedent Roe Attempted and Failed to Use, 1 Mich. L. & Pol'y Rev. page :199 (1996).

 

[8] G. Grisez, Abortion: The Myths, The Realities, and the Arguments 186-87 (1970); J. Stephen, 1 History of the Criminal Law of England 54 (1883), cited in Cyril C. Means, Jr., The Phoenix of Abortional Freedom, 17 N.Y.L.F. 335, 347 n.26 (1971) 

[9] Theophilus Gale, 2 The Court of the Gentiles 309 (1677) (pt. 4), cited in Oxford English Dictionary (1961).

 

[10] Mark S. Scott, Note, Quickening in the Common Law: The Legal Precedent Roe Attempted and Failed to Use, 1 Mich. L. & Pol'y Rev. page 199 (1996).

 

[11] Ibid. at page 199.

 

[12] http://www.vanderbilt.edu/SFL/quickening.htm cited in Mark S. Scott, Note, Quickening in the Common Law: The Legal Precedent Roe Attempted and Failed to Use, 1 Mich. L. & Pol'y Rev. page 199 (1996). (August 2003)

[13] Otherwise until and after Roe v. Wade (1973), 410 U.S. 113

[14] www.connerprairie.org/historyonline/whlh.html  (August 2003)

 

[17] James C. Mohr : Abortion in America: Origins and Evolution of National Policy,1800-1900,1978

 

 

[20]  "Quickening" itself referred to the sensation of foetal movement felt and reported by the pregnant woman.

 

[21]  www.connerprairie.org/historyonline/whlh. (August 2003)

 

[22] The leading American case was Commonwealth v. Bangs, 9 Mass. 369 (1812). 

 

[23] Rickie Solinger, The Abortionist: A Woman Against the Law (New York: The Free Press, 1994), page 11-12.

 

[24] college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/ women/html/wm_000300_abortion.htm  (August 2003).

 

[25] James C. Mohr : Abortion in America: Origins and Evolution of National Policy,1800-1900,1978.

 

[26] Ronald Reagan, Abortion and the Conscience of a Nation (Thomas Nelson, 1984), pp. 88-89.



01.02.2004 17:51:29

Petr Gajdušek

 
< Předch.   Další >