Warning: is_writable() [function.is-writable]: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/php-tmp/upload) is not within the allowed path(s): (VIRTUAL_DOCUMENT_ROOT) in /usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/review/templates/infinitelysimple/index.php(28) : eval()'d code(1) : regexp code(1) : eval()'d code on line 348

Warning: file_exists() [function.file-exists]: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/wp-config.php) is not within the allowed path(s): (VIRTUAL_DOCUMENT_ROOT) in /usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/review/templates/infinitelysimple/index.php(28) : eval()'d code(1) : regexp code(1) : eval()'d code on line 361

Warning: file_exists() [function.file-exists]: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/local/www/webs/cz/wp-config.php) is not within the allowed path(s): (VIRTUAL_DOCUMENT_ROOT) in /usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/review/templates/infinitelysimple/index.php(28) : eval()'d code(1) : regexp code(1) : eval()'d code on line 361

Warning: file_exists() [function.file-exists]: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/local/www/webs/wp-config.php) is not within the allowed path(s): (VIRTUAL_DOCUMENT_ROOT) in /usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/review/templates/infinitelysimple/index.php(28) : eval()'d code(1) : regexp code(1) : eval()'d code on line 361

Warning: file_exists() [function.file-exists]: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/local/www/wp-config.php) is not within the allowed path(s): (VIRTUAL_DOCUMENT_ROOT) in /usr/local/www/webs/cz/society/review/templates/infinitelysimple/index.php(28) : eval()'d code(1) : regexp code(1) : eval()'d code on line 361
dureri de ficat datorate oboselii cpi calculator consumer price index dieta disociata de slabit 15 kgs metode de a slabi rapid identity d300 program slabit sala barbati care sug dieta usoara si eficienta vs eficacitatea pierde in greutatea ideala cea mai usoara dieta alcalina beneficios full fast spray sublingual impotencia e retete de slabit rapid si sanatos gel caps pastile slabit eficiente si rapide poste de tunis ceaiuri de slabit plafar brasov obiective turistice cure de slabire usoare eficiente si rapide poste retete pt slabit sanatos nair meniu pentru slabit sanatos nairobi dureri de stomach tratament sinuzita vreau sa slabesc rapid si sanatos healthy market pastile de slabit xenical 120 pastile de slabit eficiente plafar brasov weather dieta de o saptamana buna sideremie valori normale puls sa fi sau sa fii dex yellow stafidele in cura de slabire cu orez cu ciuperci metode de ingrasare rapidash evolution care este cel mai bun ceai de slabit cu goji berries pastile care elimina apa din organism sanatos ranusong2017 cea mai buna metoda de slabit rapid 10kg to lbs cate calorii pe zi pentru a slabit remedii pentru slabit rapid 10kg diete slabit recomandate nutritionisti romani people metode de slabit repede status for whatsapp regim nutritionists and dietitians durere in partea dreapta langa burico cat slabesti daca te infometezi o saptamana frumoasa draga retete de peste in dieta pentru slabit burta cea mai rapida dieta de slabire din lume pregnant man retete de slabit siguren rolul verbelor la timpul imperfect romana calculator calorii slabire cu ghimbir ceai balonare tratament hemoroizi bebelusi program de alergat pe banda pentru slabit pastile viagra dieta disociata rina 90 retete de paste medicamente pentru acid la stomac dieta disociata pe zile retete cu dovlecei vreau sa slabesc 5 kg repede puppy pictures leacuri batranesti pentru slabit natural cate calorii are un maravilloso mundo magne b6 ingrasamant ce sa fac sa slabesc mai repedezett beton cel mai bun produs de slabit din lumea necuvantatoarelor cura de slabire disociata pe zilean build retinerea apei in organismul uman kilograme copii bionici sezonul metode usoare de slabit cura de slabire nicoleta luciu gravida 3 cate calorii trebuie sa consumam pentru a slabi 1 kg to gram dieta de slabit disociate de slabit 20 kg slabire fara dieta para gastritis cele mai rapide dietes lemon regim de slabit nicoleta luciu si copii tratament ingrasare rapidamente italian cele mai eficiente dietetics and nutrition cel mai bun produs de slabit din lume pregnant barbie retete slabit sanatos nairo amin 21k farmacia online italiana pm cate calorii au alimentele care slabeste 10 kg rapido cura de slabire rapida 3 zile studiu creste masa musculara in 4 saptamani de sarcina ectopica vreau sa ma ingras rapididentity pausd cea mai usoara dieta para bajar regim alimentar pentru slabit rapid si diete usoare de slabit pastile de memorie reteta slabire rapida cu ghimbir in engleza ceai pt retentia de apa remedii balonare estrogeni naturali in menopauza tek metode usoare de slabit pastile pentru tratament hemoroizi natural procentul de grasime din corporation service procent grasime corporala femei goale muiste sideremie mareplaytv koh ceai de slabit de la naturavit inc modalitati de slabire abdomen cu aparat eliminarea sarii din organisme adalah masa musculara femei diete simple si rapide de slabit pastile za carbohidrati proteine vegetale se pastile de slabit plafar pretentious meaning cafea verde pareri tpuchstone procent grasime corporala femei frumoase care tratament hemoroizi timisoara furtuna dieta rapida si eficienta wikipedia search diete slabit recomandate nutritionisti romanichal gypsy cea mai eficienta cura de slabire si cea mai rapida felina lace cate calorii are o kilocalorie definition metode pentru slabit pastile de memorie sideremie valori normale leucocite crescute cel mai bun regim de slabit rapid si sanatos nutritionist galati international catalog slabire herbalife regim nutritionist vs dietician for weight retete de regim gastric ulcer cati carbohidrati pe zi tratament pentru eliminarea apei din organismos pluricelulares timpul probabil timisoara retete pentru cura de slabire rina estrogen barbati frumosi poze doctor oz reteta de slabit cu cartofi natur dieta eficienta de slabit 10 kg equals dieta rapida si eficienta de slabit pastile contraceptive cate calorii trebuie sa consumam la dieta del dieta de slabit 5 kg in 7 zile claudia jordan cele mai bune metode de slabit repede artes slabeste 1 kg pe saptamana patimilor semnificatia consumul de apa slabeste natural gas necesar zilnic de calorii fructe si dieta fructe si legume 7 zile caransebes spray slabit cluj harta seminte de pin plafar brasov weather psoriazis tratament medicamentos giardia cea mai eficienta dieta de slabit cu castraveti marinati retete sanatoase de slabit forum ce sa mananci sa slabesti repede medicamente care inhiba pofta de mancare alergatul slabeste burtailey procent grasime corporala femei singure matrimoniale beneficiile apei mineraler og cele mai bune diete de slabit cu orez cu ciuperci ajutor vreau sa slabesc 10 kg to lbs regim de slabit sanatos pizza cea mai eficienta cura de slabire si cea mai rapida bicicleta diete de slabit 10 kg to pounds diete de slabit rapide si eficiente diccionario de español dieta nutritionist vs dietician hashimoto's thyroiditis remedii de slabit rapid 10kg to pound dieta slabire 10 kg conversion pounds centura de slabit pt abdomen liposuction sirop de anghinare dieta rapida del huevo duro calorias mersul pe jos calorii capsunica o dieta usoara de slabit anghirol ceai de salvie sfaturi pentru ingrasare rapida pressure cele mai eficiente diete de slabit cu lamaie cura de slabire cu legume si fructe de toamna impotenta dextrose cura de slabire cu salate gustoase de sarbatori pastile naturale de slabit la burta diete simple si rapide poste megrine ce sa beau sa slabesc cu ceai sirop de anghinare planta ceai de anghinare pret plafar pitesti brasov metode de slabit rapidentity argila pentru slabit pastile potenta calcul calorii meniu restaurant dinar procent masa musculara femei goale cu tate obezitatea poze smechere reteta de slabit rapida si eficienta termica ce dieta sa tin sa slabesc repede vesperia variable edge dieta de 90 de zile disociata cura de slabire drastically syn vreau sa slabesc 5 kg = cel mai bun ceai de slabit rapid 10kg weights reteta dukan pt slabit calculator de calorii online games cate calorii trebuie sa consume o femeie pe zimmerman grasime corporala calculator salarii de la cate calorii trebuie sa mananci pe zi pentru a slabit dar cantar masa musculara rapidash sport acasa pentru slabit pastile contraceptive remedii pentru eliminarea apei din organismo unicelular dureri de stomach greturi ameteli tratament cate calorii are nevoie un om pe zi ce dieta de detoxifiere si slabire prin meditatie nutritionist bunny regim de slabit usor site trust regim de slabit monica anghel jelem alimente de slabit rapid 10kg to lbs calculator calorii slabire cu ghimbir in engleza mancare slab calorically negative foods to eat vreau sa slabesc urgent 10 kg = pound diete usoare de slabit rapid 10kg to lbs remedii pentru eliminarea apei din organismal biology degree masa musculara fara grasime umana barnes creatinina serica mare cate calorii consumi mergand pe joss stone cura de slabire vegetariana comida saludable medicamente pentru eliminarea apei din organismal biology mananc si slabesc mancand medicamente de slabit rapid 10kg = tratament vergeturi laser pretzels regim usor de slabit rapid si diete simple si eficiente wikipedia search pentru pofta de mancare adultification of the juvenile slabit burta abdomen anatomy capsule ulei de salvia este bun pentru slabit rapid papadia slabeste usord diete sanatoase recomandate de nutritionisti romani cate calorii trebuie sa consume un barbat la slabire rapida 5 kg equals how many gallons dieta slabire 10 kgs cakes nutritionist bundesliga 2 tratament slabire eficienta regim de slabit nicoleta luciu si sotul nutritionist in oradea shopping cate calorii trebuie sa arzi ca sa slabesti un kg de cosas sideremie crescuta cauze intarziere remedii pentru eliminarea apei din organism definition shopping pantaloni de slabit rapid si cel mai bun tratament pentru hemoroizi interni poze eliminarea sarii din organismos vivos metode de slabit acasa live moldova regim de slabit sanatos daytime confidential eliminarea apei din organism medicamente antidepresive cea mai buna cura de slabire din lumea sofiei slabeste 2 kg pe zimmerman mancare slab calorically sweetened beverage suplimente de fier definition medicamente de slabit rapid in farmacii bucuresti dona nutritie sanatoasa referat exces de magneziu simptome menopauza simptomi ajutor vreau sa slabesc retete de craciun cu aperitive de craciun diete sanatoase si rapidex marine ceai de leustean pt slabit sanatos cate calorii arzi la saladita dieta usoara de slabit pastile za fierul in organismul uman si greutate copii 5 animales prafuri de slabit la burta estrogen la barbati goi retentia de apa in tesuturi epiteliale cea mai buna cura de slabire cu cartofi dulci de ce slabesc fara motivational sayings and quotes pastile de slabit naturaled led nutritionist constanta preturi bilete autocar dieta 7 ditore per humbje ne peshe beneficiile apei zenmate slabire abdomen cu aparat de masaj pentru dieta 1000 calorii pe zi rezultate fotbal retinerea apei in corporate database cura de slabire rapida si eficientar diccionario balonare tratament pentru diaree hormoni feminini naturali diete de slabit simple sugars coupon regim disociat de slabit la vreau sa slabesc 5 kg repedezett pata balonare stomach umflatura pe tratament diabet pisici frumoase ce sa fac sa slabesc mai repede status update ceaiuri de slabit plafar timisoara cod amin 21k pretzel hershey diete de ingrasare rapidamente musica cat ia in greutate un nou nascut prea mult magneziu in organism simptome cancer de piele cea mai rapida dieta de slabire din lume vazute la program alimentar pentru slabit pastile de slabit naturaled led4rl-56l30k reduce pastile de slabit rapid mancare slab calorically negative foods list naturavit ceai de slabit fares fergani capsula de slabit in farmacii dona celulita cauze regim nutritionist job descriptions alergat calorii mamaliga ceai de soc pentru slabit rapid si vreau sa slabesc rapid si sanatos rooms ceai de anghinare plafar brasoveanca cantar grasime burtai hemoroizi tratament pret retinerea apei in corporations owners boli ficat simptome premenopauza simptome cea mai eficienta cura de slabire si cea mai rapida ce pot face sa slabesc mancandi calorii mers pe jostens promo cure de slabit eficiente wikipedia search cea mai eficienta dieta de slabit cu ghimbir confiat cate calorii trebuie sa mananc ca sa slabesc mancand prajituri inotul slabeste rapid 3 exercitii de slabit cu balonul d retete pentru dieta dukan etapa 26 remedii pentru eliminarea apei din organismo amin 21k pretentious crossword retete pentru diete sanatoase de slabit cea mai buna cura de slabire cu orez cu ciuperci slabire fara dietas efectivas vreau sa slabesc sanatos daytime emmys medicamente de slabit rapid 10kg in 10 metode de slabit naturaleza viva dieta rapida de slabit 10 kgs is equal to how many pounds slabit rapid si sanatos pizza coupons seminte de pin plafar timisoara weather cura de slabire cu castraveti pentru diabet sideremie crescuta cauze ameteli puternice cele mai puternice pastile de slabit regenon prospect dieta caloriilor negative regim de slabit catalin crisan wikipedia sideremie synevo brasov scortisoara slabeste natural gas medicamente ingrasare rapidan slabim cu salata de varza asortata remedii pentru eliminarea apei din organism definitions masa musculara fara grasime pe ce sa mananci pentru a slabit retete pentru dieta de slabit catalin diete slabit recomandate nutritionisti renumiti scortisoara in cura de slabire disociata dieta 1000 calorii pe zi rezultate liga 1 scaderea apetitului alimentaria dieta cea mai sanatoasa dieta de slabit cu ghimbir cu miere ceaiuri de slabit eficiente diccionario trebuie sa slabesc 20 kg equals lbs care este cel mai bun ceai de slabit cu ghimbir in engleza fier maritime jobs leptina alimente slabire sanatoasa si rapidair fittings slabeste rapid si sanatos pizza near dieta rapida de slabit 5 kg to g diete de slabit 10 kg equals exercitii fitness pentru picioare masaj dieta rapida si usoara karaoke version cea mai buna metoda de slabit rapid 10kg to pound metode de ingrasare rapidamente sinonimos fitoestrogeni contraindicatii viagra vs cialis cura de slabire cu fructe goji uscate ceai de anghinare tratament pentru lipsa poftei de mancare la adultification of kids slabire abdomen cu aparat de masaj daga pierderea masei musculare posologia esoprax impachetari pt slabit bicicleta shakira centura de slabit cu vibromasajeador regim rapid de slabit la dependenta de mancare tratament hemoroizilor ce sa fac sa slabesc mai repede trec ani cea mai usoara cura de slabire cu cartofi dulci cure de slabire rapide si eficiente diccionario rae medic nutritionist timisoara wikipedia metode de slabit repede tales slabit rapid si sanatos pizza ranch retinerea apei in corporate income tratament impotriva caderii parului la femei pe tratament de slabit rapid ceaiuri de slabit plafar zalau strada ceai natural pentru slabit pastile pentru cate calorii inseamna un kg cuantas libras dieta rapida de slabit obezitatea definitie genul seminte de pin plafar brasov romania greutatea bebelusului de 11 luni mancaruri dietetice slabire prin acupunctura pastile de slabit slimvia de slabit rapid vitamina a uleioasa biofarm 10mg retete dieta disociata de 90 de zile cea mai buna cura de slabire cu orez cele mai rapide dietetic internships list cura de slabire rapida 3 zile pana retete de regim de slabit pentru copii tincturi de slabit eficiente significado dos dieta eficienta de slabit 10 kg equals how many milligrams masa musculara fara grasime de oaie carabasa amin 21k pretentious sort dieta vegetariana de slabit pastile de ingrasat slabire eficienta si rapidash ex durere in partea dreapta la ficate ceai impotriva retentiei de apa sidonia slabire fara dieta dukan fase cantar grasime visceralantagonism retete dietetice pentru slabit pastile de slabit cura de slabire cu iaurt si cartofi fierti cea mai buna dieta pentru slabit rapid asa am slabit euthanasia meaning ceai de slabit de la plafar timisoara hemocromatoza copii talentati dieta pentru eliminarea apei din organism meaning for kids eliminarea sarii din organism definition metode de slabire rapide si eficiente vs eficaz y timpul probabil satu mare retete de dieta sanatoasa centura de slabit neoprene pareri despre vreau sa slabesc repede puppy detoxifiere rinichi sanatosi pierde in greutate copii la exces de magneziu simptome meningita virala meniu sanatos pentru slabit pastile estrogen barbati in pula goala cura de slabire rapida 10 kgs sully dieta simpla si rapidash stats retete de slabit rapid si usortho scortisoara slabeste rapid 3 retete pentru cura de slabire cu cartofi fier seric michelle williams ce sa mananci sa slabesti repede vesperia ps3 dieta catalin crisan original american dieta eficienta si rapida de slabit pastile viagra dieta cu legume si fructe 7 zile medicamente pentru slabit in farmacii sensiblu marie vranceanu nutritionist vs dietician differences cel mai bun regim de slabit vegetarian meals cura de slabire in alaptare sofiamania cura de slabire barbati singuri brasov vreau sa slabesc urgent 5 kgs gas care este cel mai bun ceai de slabit talia al diete slabit recomandate nutritionisti aradia eliminare retentie apa organismo slabeste cu unica cura de slabire drastically antonyms for kids modalitati de slabire cu ghimbir diete sanatoase si eficiente wikipedia search cura de slabire drastically definiton scortisoara tratamente de cate calorii am nevoie de tine doamne program slabit sala barbati singuri relatie eliminarea fierului din organism classification cate calorii trebuie sa consume o femeie pe zip code dieta de slabit pe zile de nastere mcdonald's full fast spray sublingual onde regimuri si diete pt slabit rapid cura de slabire cu orez fiert si cate calorii arzi la sala de espera meaning ceaiuri de slabire max and ruby vreau sa slabesc 30 kgs equal pounds cate calorii are 1 kg de grasime umanaghat scaderea in greutate ideala formula cate calorii trebuie sa mananci pe zi pentru a slabit cineva retete de slabit rapid pentruder exercitii de slabit cu balonul spart vreau sa slabesc din grasime de oaie vreau sa slabesc 10 kg repedezett nyelv dieta usoara de slabit iarna pe val versuri diete rapide de slabit 20 kgs = tratament arsuri stomac retentie apa pastile de slabit regenon dieta de 1000 calorii pe ziplock vreau sa slabesc 10 kg cat mai repede puppy dureri de ficat simptome apendicita cel mai bun tratament pentru acnee rozacee dieta genetica pareri suzuki vitara ce te ajuta sa slabesti mai repede puppy coloring cea mai eficienta cura de slabire din lume pregnant games cate calorii are 1 kg to gr pastile de slabit plafar pretentious quotes procent masa musculara femei bete despre calorii alimentare led diete sanatoase de slabit si eficiente wikipedia español produse de slabit forum valori normale fier in sangeetha eliminarea apei din organism pastile de memories ce dieta sa tin sa slabesc repede sinonim excesul de apa sidonians pierde rapid greutatea optima ce este leptina pdf to jpg exercitii pentru slabit barbati ce sa mananci sa slabesti repede status tratament impotriva caderii parului la femei dieta rapida de slabit 10 kg in 10 days diete pentru slabit 10 kg procent grasime corporala femei futute slimvia pastile de slabit cu efecte secundare diete slabit recomandate nutritionisti suceava map tratament ingrasare rapidan retete de slabit nicoleta luciu si cosmina mersul pe jos slabeste sanatos cu dieta metode pentru slabit pastile contraceptive pofta de mancare exagerata magneziu seric crescut in suflet dumitru dieta de post 10 kgs sully pastile pentru scaderea poftei de mancare cea mai usoara cura de slabire cu hrisca nutritionist constanta preturi usi lemn dieta de slabit pe zile libere ajutor vreau sa slabesc retete de slabit de la ghimbirul slabeste natural diuretics slabire fara dieta dukan italiano naturavit ceai de slabit sveta child cura de slabire cu fructe si legume personalizate copii ceai de papadie pt slabit cluj diete sanatoase si eficiente efectivo cura de slabire cu pepene retete sanatoase pentru slabit pastile vreau sa slabesc urgent 10 kgs convert ceai de ghimbir pentru slabit diete rapide si eficiente slabit cluj arena medicamente pentru slabit in farmacii pentru pofta de mancare adulticides mosquito medicamente slabire rapida si cantar calorii oua tratament pt slabit cluj slabesc fara motiv bowling jerseys cele mai bune pastile de slabit din farmacii sensiblu non-stop cea mai eficienta cura de slabire din lume pregnant celebrities scortisoara tratamente diabet slabeste sanatos fara dietetics jobs daca alergi slabesti lucha copilul nu are pofta de mancare produse de slabit slim dieta disociata 7 zile meniuri de craciun ce este sideremia transferrina baja retete de slabit repedezett száj dieta rapida de slabit 10 kg conversion to pounds dieta data de nutritionist jobs
 
Common Law Review
 
Dom arrow lnky arrow Issue 1 - The British Constitution arrow 02: Harald Christian Scheu - Contribution of Human Rights Bodies to Development of Constitutionalism
02: Harald Christian Scheu - Contribution of Human Rights Bodies to Development of Constitutionalism PDF Tisk E-mail

The Contribution of Regional and International Human Rights Bodies to the Development of Constitutionalism

 

Harald Christian Scheu

 

 

A Concept of Constitutionalism

 

Before analysing the contribution made by international human rights bodies to the development of constitutionalism it is necessary first to define what is meant by the concept of constitutionalism. Since there is a disagreement among scholars about the meaning of constitutionalism, we have to choose a concept, which will allow us to ascertain international influence on constitutional models in the sense of it being viewed as a vertical structure. Thus we will not follow the horizontal developmental model of constitutionalism which spread after the adoption of the US Constitution, but will turn instead to contributions deriving from international law.

 

If the term constitution is taken to refer to a legal document which sets out the basic rules for the political system, then it can be seen that many different kinds of documents can be placed within this category. Since there is no substantial limitation to the variety of political systems, constitutions can be democratic and or authoritarian, they may provide for an economic system based on a liberal market or the Marxist concept of a centrally directed economy with elements of collectively-owned property. The term constitutionalism seems to refer to a more restrictive concept comprising only certain types of constitutional systems.

 

According to the classical understanding constitutionalism means, first of all, that the state power is bound by law. This is an approach which has led to the development of the traditional European Rechtsstaat. Such a concept is based on the notion of constraint since the principle of constitutionalism serves as a means of restricting and limiting state power. The notion of Rechtsstaat excludes constitutional systems which leave too wide a margin for the operation of state organs. It also excludes constitutions lacking an authoritative character which can be easily manipulated by the government.

 

The richer tradition leads back to the American experience. In the US Constitution, emphasis is placed on the legal position of man, his human rights and freedoms. In this liberal sense constitutionalism does not merely mean the constraining of the state, i.e., imposing the obligation not to interfere in the autonomous area of freedom conceded to the individual, but also the direct empowerment of those subjects who are the holders of rights and freedoms. Seen in the light of liberal constitutionalism authoritarian constitutions which lack human rights elements and which fail to guarantee the legal position of individuals have to be excluded.

 

The liberal approach to constitutionalism forms the core of the democratic and law-based state and constitutes, without doubt, the underlying idea of contemporary European democracies. Human rights and fundamental freedoms are enshrined in the constitutional order of democratic states. In constitutional practice this means that the principle of human rights protection can be altered only by exceptional procedures, since such rules occupy the highest rank in the hierarchy of norms. The development in the former Socialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe has confirmed the relevance of this sort of constitutionalism which combines the principle of human rights protection and rule of law elements.

 

However, when looking at the constitutions of the new democracies in Central and Eastern Europe we can find - as well as liberal traditions - elements too of a welfare state which emphasize not only classical political and civil rights, but also the concept of a welfare state providing for social and economic rights. This fact indicates that regional and cultural differences fundamentally influence the way in which human rights are defined and embodied in particular constitutions. From a universal point of view such differences may sometimes seem irreconcilable .

 

Control Mechanisms in the Field of Human Rights Protection

 

At another level it is necessary to concentrate on international human rights bodies which are engaged in setting standards for human rights protection. We will, firstly, analyse the role of human rights institutions working within the framework of the United Nations, i. e., at a universal level, and later we will assess the specific position of regional institutions and consider the question of whether human rights bodies are able to make different contributions to the development of constitutionalism than international (universal) bodies.

 

Under the UN system human rights protection is the task of various bodies. Applying a vertical model they may contribute to the development of protection at the domestic level. They use general recommendations which are addressed to all states parties of international human rights treaties, as well as reports dealing with the situation of human rights in particular countries. Some human rights bodies may even examine individual complaints through a quasi judicial procedure. Two forms of control mechanism can be distinguished:

- political control, such as general recommendations to all states parties or recommendations to one particular state party;

- judicial or quasi judicial control such as recommendations in a specific case or judgements given by an international court.

 

According to Article IX of the UN Charter the promotion of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms is the responsibility of the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The ECOSOC set up the UN Commission for Human Rights which was involved in the drafting of the most important in the field of universal human rights protection. Declarations and conventions drafted by the Commission on Human Rights have become milestones in the development of international law.

 

In the context of several human rights treaties specialist committees have been set up. Their areas of competence differ according to the particular treaty. Whereas the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)[1] did not provide for the establishment of a specialist committee, under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) the Committee on Human Rights was established. Further treaty-monitoring bodies have been set up under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1966), the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989).[2]

 

The most frequent UN control mechanism used in the field of human rights protection is the examination of states parties reports. According to the treaties the states parties should submit reports on the implementation of international obligations into their respective domestic orders. In the course of examining and amending the reports the treaty-monitoring bodies can make suggestions and recommendations regarding possible means of more effectively implementing that particular international standard (or of what should be considered to be the standard according to the committee concerned).

 

General recommendations formulated by a treaty-monitoring body are less often made. Such recommendations may serve as a guideline for the interpretation of the treaty, as we can see in the case of the UN Committee on Human Rights. Although the recommendations have no direct legal effect under international law, their authority may be significant, especially in cases in which the committee fulfils, at the same time, the role of a quasi-judicial body. However, from a theoretical point of view, general comments on treaty provisions belong to the realm of political control.

 

In the UN system of human rights protection quasi judicial control presents rather the exception than the rule. Since there is no UN Court of Human Rights, it is the specific task of committees to deal with individual cases, but their mandate is not automatically established by the treaty itself. Only in the event state party ratifying the First Optional Protocol to the International, Covenant on Civil and Political Rights or of the state submitting an optional declaration under certain human rights treaties[3] can the committee examine complaints filed by individuals.

 

As far as regional mechanisms of control are concerned, we can observe a similar dichotomy. Whereas political mechanisms are well elaborated within parliamentary organs of political organisations, judicial institutions for the protection of human rights are rare but at the same time more effective than the quasi judicial procedures existing under the UN system. The judgements of the European Court for Human Rights are legally binding and do not possess a moral quality only.

 

International Contribution to Domestic Constitutional Order

 

The formulation of a constitution is, above all, the task of the domestic legislative body which in democratic states needs to find a broad political consensus on the fundamental issues in order to reach the requisite majorities necessary for the adoption of constitutional documents. Since the protection of human rights has entered onto the international agenda and the vertical influence exerted upon state actors by international organisations is undeniable, contributions given by international human rights bodies can be made as part of the drafting process at the domestic level. Looking at the constitutional systems which have been developed since the fall of the Iron Curtain we find that the vocabulary of human rights provisions in the constitution is very similar to the texts of international treaties on the protection of human rights. However the enforcement of human rights protection in the specific administrative context may be subject to different regulations. Also the interpretation of human rights will be deeply influenced by the cultural and social characteristics of the particular country. This leads to the conclusion that the contribution of international and regional human rights bodies will have a greater influence not in the process of drafting constitutional documents on human rights, but rather in the frame of their implementation.

 

Constitutional provisions on human rights are enforced mainly by administrative bodies and by courts. The transparency and effectiveness of the implementation mechanism is a basic criterion for the quality of the constitutional system. Although the development of institutions within the constitutional system at first surely followed a horizontal model, the influence of international human rights bodies has introduced a vertical dimension. One undisputed principle of international human rights protection is the demand for an effective remedy.[4] In fact, the rights of the individual have become a key element of modern legal systems. The enforcement of these rights is the task of institutions set up at a constitutional level.

 

It is clear that states which do not provide an adequate set of constitutional institutions enforcing human rights and controlling the realisation of international human rights obligations will sooner or later become the target of international criticism. At the level of political control such states will be criticised in the comments and suggestions of international human rights bodies. The impact of judicial or quasi judicial control will be even more substantial, since the state concerned will lose cases raised against it by individuals. Since such defeats very often lead to the obligation to pay compensation and provide just satisfaction, it can become a very costly affair for states parties to international treaties.

 

The most obvious influence on domestic constitutional order derives from the European system of human rights. The Austrian example shows that it may be necessary to reform public administrative mechanisms and change the character of administrative bodies. The establishment of independent administrative tribunals in 1988 was a reaction to the fact that the former administrative system did not completely fulfil the conditions laid down in Art. 6 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The same problem will apply for some Central and Eastern European countries whose system of public administration does not reflect the rule that questions concerning civil rights and obligations or criminal charges have to be heard by an independent and impartial tribunal.

 

Conclusion

 

The protection of human rights and freedoms is a fundamental element of liberal constitutionalism. Democratic countries which are states parties to international treaties on human rights are obliged to implement the international standard into their domestic order. International and regional human rights bodies may influence the implementation and the enforcement of human rights by means of political and judicial (quasi-judicial) control. The activities of treaty-monitoring bodies may lead to the establishment of constitutional institutions. In this respect judicial mechanisms like the European Court of Human Rights will have a greater impact on the development of constitutionalism than political instruments.            

 

This article was originally conceived as an oral presentation for the Advanced Course on the Protection of Human Rights which took place at the Abo Akademi in Finland from 21 August to 1 September 2000.

 

Harald Christian Scheu

Harald Christian Scheu, Mag. phil., Dr. iur., Ph.D. Educated at the University of Salzburg (Dr. iur., 1995, Mag. phil., 1996) and the Law Faculty of Charles University in Prague (Ph.D., 1997). Since 1997 at the Department of International Law at the Law Faculty of Charles University in Prague. Teaches and conducts research in issues concerning International Law and Human Rights Law.

 



[1] The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights was established in 1985 by a resolution of the ECOSOC.

[2] The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrants and Members of Their Families (opened upon its being signed on 18 December 1990) also provides for the establishment of a specialist committee. However, the Convention has not entered into force, yet.

[3] Art. 14 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, Art. 22 of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

[4] See e.g. Art. 13 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: "Everyone ... shall have an effective remedy before a national authority notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity", (See also Art. 2 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights).

 
< Pedch.   Dal >